Biscuit Science

Biscuit Science

Short description
Full description
Short description

Biscuit Science

Type of resource: Websites

Web address

Language: English


Investigating particle science by making biscuits and then crushing them. Exploring how the crushed biscuit behaves like a liquid. It can be poured and take the shape of different containers.

Scientific concept introduced

Investigating how some solids can behave like liquids

Creative and critical thinking

Critical Thinking:

1. Prediction

Creative Thinking:

1. Curiosity

2. Making

Mathematical reasoning


Scientific thinking

2. Observing
3. Predicting
4. Comparing
5. Drawing connections
6. Drawing conclusions

Learning how to learn

1. Following guidelines
2. Active listening
3. Self-efficacy in learning
4. Fun in learning
5. Reflection on learning


1. Collaborative skills such as sharing and turn-taking
2. Literacy – vocabulary development
3. Oral language development
4. Health and safety in the kitchen
5. Cooking skills of mixing, rolling dough, cutting out dough

Full description

Biscuit Science

Overall aims

• to enable pupils to explore how some solids can behave like liquids using biscuits
• to enable pupils to make biscuits
• to develop pupils’ skills in listening and following guidelines
• to develop pupils’ skills in observing and predicting
• to develop pupils’ cooking skills of mixing, rolling dough, cutting out dough
• to develop pupils’ measuring skills
• to develop pupils’ skills in sharing and turn-taking
• to reflect on their learning

Vocabulary - keywords should be understood

Biscuit, solid, liquid, shape, pour, container, dough, mix, roll, cut, wooden spoon, rolling pin,
molecules, crush, pieces

Expected learning outcomes (operational aims)

The child will be enabled to:
• follow guidelines for the investigation
• name solids and liquids
• identify some differences between solids and liquids
• make biscuits
• practice the skill of using a wooden spoon to mix
• practice the skill of rolling dough with a rolling pin
• practice the skill of cutting out dough with a cookie shape cutter
• record some details of their learning experience

STEM skills - to which the learning unit is related to


• Questioning
• Observing
• Predicting
• Comparing
• Curiosity
• Making
• Measuring
• Drawing connections
• Drawing conclusions


• Following guidelines
• Active listening
• Self-efficacy in learning
• Collaborative skills such as sharing and turn-taking
• Literacy – vocabulary development
• Oral language development
• Health and safety in the kitchen
• Fun in learning
• Cooking skills of mixing, rolling dough, cutting out dough
• Reflection on learning

Teaching methodologies/activity outline

Teacher Note: Start this experiment at the beginning of the day to allow the baked biscuits to cool completely.

1. Show pupils a cup, asking them to describe it. Inform pupils that a cup is a solid.
A solid has its own set shape.
2. Show pupils a clear bottle of water. What shape is the water? (It is the shape of the bottle). Ask pupils what they think will happen to the water when it’s poured into the cup. Pour the water into the cup. What happened? (The water took the shape of the cup now). Inform pupils that water is a liquid.
A liquid takes the shape of its container.
3. Ask pupils to name some solids and liquids, noting these on the board.
4. Inform pupils that they are going to make some biscuits. Ask pupils if they think a biscuit is a solid or liquid? Explain that they will investigate this with the biscuits they make.


(Ask pupils to work in groups of 5 or 6, with adult supervision)


Ingredients/materials for biscuits (per group):
• 25g sugar
• 50g butter (softened)
• 75g flour
• Mixing bowl
• Cookie shape cutter
• Wooden spoon
• Rolling pin
• Wire tray
• Weighing scales


Materials: (per group)
• Biscuits
• Plastic freezer bag
• Rolling pin (to crush the biscuit)
• Cup

Part 1:
(Remind pupils to take turns in their groups)
1. Make sure all hands are washed clean before you begin.
2. Pre-heat the oven to 180 ̊C.
3. Older classes can measure out ingredients but for younger pupils the ingredients may need to be measured out beforehand.
4. Ask pupils to place the butter into the bowl. Then add the sugar and mix well with the wooden spoon. (Ask pupils whether sugar is a solid or liquid, eliciting that it is a solid but it is poured into the bowl, like the way a liquid would be poured. Inform pupils that they’re going to be exploring this with the finished biscuits later on).
5. Next ask them to add the flour, mixing it in with the wooden spoon again. Then ask pupils to use their hands to combine and bring the mixture together into a dough.
6. Show pupils a rolling pin, demonstrating how it’s used. Then on a prepared floured board, ask pupils to roll out the dough until it’s about 2cm thick.
7. Ask pupils to carefully cut the dough into shapes using a cookie shape cutter.
8. Place on a baking tray and put it into the oven for 10-15 minutes.
9. When the biscuits are baked, leave on a wire tray to cool.


Part 2: (Later in the day, when the biscuits have cooled down)
1. Ask each group to take three of their biscuits and place them in their plastic bag.
Sample question: What does the biscuit look like now? Is it a solid or liquid?
2. Ask pupils to close the plastic bag and to roll the rolling pin across the bag.
Sample questions: What happens to the biscuits? (They are crushed). What does the biscuit look like? (Small crumbly pieces).
3. Ask pupils to pour the biscuit from the bag into the cup.
Sample question: Which do we usually pour liquids or solids? (Liquids). Are these biscuits still solids? (Yes - see explanation below)

The Science behind it (particle science):
Solids have a set shape. However, some solids are made up of tiny pieces and they can be poured: Even though we could pour the biscuit into the cup when it was broken into pieces, the tiniest parts of the biscuit (called the molecules), were still tightly packed in the biscuit, so even though the biscuit behaved like a liquid, it was still a solid. Even when a solid is broken up - it’s still a solid.

4. Ask pupils to think of any other solids that behave like liquids. For example, sand and sugar are solids even though they can be poured. They will fit into the shape of the containers into which they’re poured.

1. Ask pupils to complete a Learning Log for this investigation drawing/writing about the following:
● The most interesting thing they learned
● One thing they’d like to know more about

Assessment of learning

Pupil observation sheet

Equipment and materials to be used in learning unit (tools, ingredients etc)

For pupils (per group):
• 25g sugar
• 50g butter (softened)
• 75g flour
• Mixing bowl
• Cookie shape cutter
• Wooden spoon
• Rolling pin
• Wire tray
• Weighing scales
• Biscuits
• Plastic freezer bag
• Rolling pin (to crush the biscuit)
• Cup


For Teacher:
• A cup
• A bottle of water
• An oven mit

Kind of setting

Kitchen or classroom with cooking facilities (i.e. hot stove)

References - source


Biscuit Science

1. Usefulness for STEM education - integrating content of different disciplines

Cross-curricular character of the resource 


The range of S-T-E-M subjects included 


The presentation of possibilities of including artistic activities (STEAM approach)


2. Expected learning outcomes

Consistency (links) with preschool core curriculum


Communicativeness of description


3. Methodology of teaching

Clarity, communicativeness of instructions for teachers


Meaningful learning - using practical life problems


Original idea 


The level of ease in implementing the methodology to preschool age children


The level of ease in preparing necessary ingredients, materials and equipment needed


4. Sustainability

Ecological characteristics of materials/ results


Supporting healthy eating habits 


Low ecological footprint


Possibilities of inclusion (respecting cultural diversity and food intolerances)




5. Class management

Using differentiated forms of work - individual, team work etc.


Individual work





Team work





Whole group



6. Time management


Short activity (10-15 minutes)




Medium activity (20-30 minutes)




Long activity (1 hour or more)




Very long activity (1 day or more)


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