Chocolate science reversible change

Chocolate science reversible change

Short description
Full description
Short description

Chocolate Science - reversible change

Type of resource:  Website

Web address

Language: English 


Investigating the science of reversible change. It explores melting and freezing chocolate.

Scientific concept introduced

Exploring physical change: Reversible Change.

Creative and critical thinking

Critical Thinking:



Creative Thinking:


Mathematical reasoning



Scientific thinking






Drawing conclusions

Learning how to learn

Self-efficacy in learning

Engagement in learning

Learning collaboratively


Following instructions

Cooking skill of stirring

Oral language - describing substances appearance in different states

Pre-reading skills eg sequencing

Safety in the kitchen

Full description

Chocolate Science - reversible change

Overall aims

To enable pupils to explore the effects of heating and cooling on chocolate

To develop pupils’ skills in following instructions

To develop pupils’ skills in observing and predicting

To develop pupils’ skills in counting

Vocabulary - keywords should be understood

Chocolate, change, turn back, bowl, saucepan, heat, melt, cool, freeze, liquid, hard, lumpy, ingredients

Expected learning outcomes (operational aims)

The child will be enabled to:

- follow instructions for melting chocolate

- count items including chocolate chips, mold cups

- practice the skill of stirring

- observe and describe chocolate as a liquid and solid

STEM skills - to which the learning unit is related to


Asking questions

Observing and making predictions


Analyzing the results of heating/cooling

Drawing conclusions


Hand-eye coordination

Fine-motor skills



Oral Language

Following rules of safety

Group work

Teaching methodologies/activity outline

Teacher Note: Reversible change is a physical change in which a substance can be converted back to its original state without creating new material. In cooking, we can see reversible change in melting and freezing.


Begin by asking pupils what they understand by ‘reversible’? Use the example of a coat or jacket which is reversible – it can be turned inside out/outside in - either way.

Ask pupils to describe the chocolate using various senses, for example:

Sample questions: What colour is the chocolate? How does it smell? How does it fell? How does it taste? How does it sound when you take a bite of a chocolate chip.


1. Ask pupils to place the chocolate chips in a bowl, counting them.

2. Carefully place the bowl with chocolate chips on top of a saucepan with cold water. Slowly heat the water.

3. Ask pupils to carefully stir the chocolate chips, observing and noting how its appearance changes as they stir. Ask pupils to continue to stir until all the chocolate has melted. Again, encourage pupils to use their senses to describe the chocolate now in liquid form.

Sample questions: What does the chocolate look like now? / How is it different/the same as the chocolate chips? What has happened to the chocolate? / Why did the chocolate melt?

4. When the chocolate has melted, remove from heat and ask pupils to help spooning the melted chocolate into the mold – pupils filling a mold each. Leave to cool and then refrigerate. After the chocolate has had time to freeze, discuss the following:

Sample questions: Does the chocolate in the mold look like the chocolate chips? How is it different/the same? / Does the chocolate feel hard like the chocolate chips? / What has happened by melting and then freezing the chocolate?

5. Explain that if we had the exact right mold, the chocolate could be turned back into chocolate chips again. This is a ‘reversible change’ – when we make a change that can be undone. Ask pupils to think of what mold they would like to use for melting and freezing chocolate.

6. Explain irreversible change - Ask pupils in pairs to chat about what ingredients are used to make a cake.

Sample questions: What ingredients do I use to make a cake?/ Once I make a cake, can I turn the cake back into all the ingredients I used? This is an example of irreversible change.


Ask children in small groups to draw on a large page, the steps they took in their investigation i.e.

1. Looking (Observation)

2. Melting

3. Freezing

Ask them to draw how the chocolate looked at each stage and to label each step.

Assessment of learning

Pupil observation sheet

Equipment and materials to be used in learning unit (tools, ingredients etc)

- Chocolate chips

- Bowls

- Saucepan

- Spoon

- Baking mold

Kind of setting

Kitchen or classroom with cooking facilities (ie hot stove).

References - source



Chocolate Science - reversible change

1. Usefulness for STEM education - integrating content of different disciplines

Cross-curricular character of the resource 




The range of S-T-E-M subjects included 


The presentation of possibilities of including artistic activities (STEAM approach)


2. Expected learning outcomes

Consistency (links) with preschool core curriculum


Communicativeness of description


3. Methodology of teaching

Clarity, communicativeness of instructions for teachers


Meaningful learning - using practical life problems


Original idea 




The level of ease in implementing the methodology to preschool age children


The level of ease in preparing necessary ingredients, materials and equipment needed


4. Sustainability

Ecological characteristics of materials/ results


Supporting healthy eating habits 




Low ecological footprint




Possibilities of inclusion (respecting cultural diversity and food intolerances)


5. Class management

Using differentiated forms of work - individual, team work etc.


Individual work





Team work





Whole group




6. Time management


Short activity (10-15 minutes)




Medium activity (20-30 minutes)




Long activity (1 hour or more)




Very long activity (1 day or more)


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